As we work towards introducing innovative institutional arrangements through the Toolbox of Experimental Participatory Methods, we have carefully curated a selection of cases from diverse regions across Europe and other global areas. This comprehensive assortment aims to encompass a broad range of participatory approaches while also guaranteeing representation across different geographic locations. Each case, grouped into six overarching participatory methods—participatory bodies involved in co-governance, mini-publics, participatory budgeting, digital participation platforms, grassroots participatory initiatives, and citizen’s assemblies—stands out as a noteworthy example of democratic innovation, demonstrating unique strategies and resulting outcomes.

Participatory bodies involved in co-governance

A deliberative and participatory body engaged in co-governance generally is a group that facilitates collaborative decision-making, actively involving stakeholders like citizens, community members, and representatives from relevant organizations.


A minipublic denotes a small, representative group of individuals randomly selected from the general population to engage in deliberative processes.

Participatory budgeting

Participatory budgeting is a democratic and collaborative process that empowers citizens to actively contribute to the allocation of a portion of public funds.

Digital participation platforms

A digital participation platform serves as an online tool or system specifically crafted to foster civic engagement, collaboration, and participation in decision-making processes.

Bottom-up participatory initiative

A bottom-up participatory initiative refers to a process or project that originates and is driven by the active involvement, ideas, and contributions of individuals or communities at the grassroots level.

Citizen’s assembly

A citizens’ assembly is a deliberative and participatory democratic process that assembles a representative group of citizens to collectively discuss and formulate recommendations on specific issues or policies.